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英文论文翻译+标准润色案例
中文论文
翻译论文
母语润色
英文论文
中文论文

摘要:采用Gaussian 98软件包中ab initio分子轨道法(HF/6-31G)对多氯联苯PCBs28PCBs52PCBs101PCBs103PCBs118PCBs138PCBs153PCBs180PCBs2049种物质 的分子结构进行了计算,并通过 分析计算所得的结构参数:键长、键角、二面角、能量值 以及偶极矩揭示了该9种物质的结构特征,比较了PCBs同族体 在结构上的微小差别,探讨了 多氯联苯分子结构与毒性的关系,理论计 算结果与实验结果基本一致,同时所得的PCBs同族体 的结构参数对研究PCBs同族体 的环境行为具有重要的参考价值。

关键词:多氯联苯;分子结构;从头算法


翻译论文

Abstract: A theoretical study of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) molecularstructure has been investigated utilizing abinitio (HF/6-31G) method by G98w.The molecular geometries of PCBs28PCBs52PCBs101PCBs103PCBs118PCBs138PCBs153PCBs180 and PCBs204 were optimizedusing analytical gradients optimization routines. According to the bond length,bond angle, dihedral angel, energy value and dipole moments obtained from the calculation, the structurecharacter of PCBs congeners and the relationship between the molecular structure and toxicity have been discussed. The theoretical calculations were in goodagreement with the experimental results.And the structureparameters gained from our calculation are a useful reference for studying theinteraction between the PCBs congeners and the environment.

Key words: PolychlorinatedBiphenylsmolecularstructureab initio


母语润色

化学摘要翻译润色.png

英文论文

Abstract: An ab initio (HF/6-G)study of the molecular structure of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) has been carriedout using  Gaussian 98W. The molecular geometries of PCB28, PCB52, PCB101, PCB103,PCB118, PCB138, PCB153, PCB180 and PCB204 were optimized using analyticalgradient optimization routines. On the basis of the calculated values of the bondlengths, bond angles, dihedral angle, total energy and dipole moments, key structural featuresof the PCB congenersand the relationship between the molecular structure and toxicity are discussed. The results of the theoretical calculations are ingood agreement with experimental data.Furthermore the structural parametersobtained from the calculations are a useful reference for studying theinteraction between the PCB congeners and the environment.

Key words: Polychlorinatedbiphenylsmolecularstructureab initio


论文翻译+标准润色案例(2)
中文论文
翻译论文
母语润色
英文论文
中文论文

分析结果存在异质性是难免的,而且异质性较高,因此数 据分析时采用随机效应模型。本研究 造成异质性的原因可能是个研究设计不同、研究对 象基本情况不同和各研究诊断方法实施的医师经验水平的差异等。SROC曲线下面积越接近1,说明该 诊断方法的准确性越高,血清特异性IgE是目前 过敏性鼻炎诊断的金标准,其SROC曲线下 面积相当且最接近于1,说明其 诊断的准确率最高,但因其 需采集患者外周血,故为有创检测,对于晕 血及部分儿童患者,可能有一定的局限性。鼻分泌物特异性IgE虽然准 确率不如金标准一样高,但其SROC曲线下面积>0.9,说明其准确性很高,具有中等诊断价值,加之其 相对无创和检测方便,虽不能 完全取代金标准,但可以 作为一种协同诊断的方法。

本研究的局限性:1.本研究 虽不存在明显的阈值效应,但各原 始研究的阈值并不完全统一,可能影 响结论的准确性;2.纳入研 究和病例数偏少,且部分 研究未能提供完整的数据资料及研究实施情况,可能导 致偏移和影响结论的准确性;3.诊断实 验的操作者熟练程度及经验水平也会对结果造成一定的影响。

综上所述,三种诊 断方法各有优缺点。因本方 法属于无创的检测方法,操作简便,故本方 法可作为早起筛查的方法,如未发现异常,可进行 金标准的有创补充检测,如可以 三种诊断方法联合应用将大大提高诊断的准确率,无论如何,未来还 需要更多的研究来标准化鼻分泌物特异性IgE检测,并明确其价值。



翻译论文

The heterogeneity of the analysis results was unavoidable, but the random effect model should be used in the data analysis when the heterogeneity was high. The reasons for the high heterogeneity in this study may be related to the difference of the research design, the difference of the basic situation of the research object, and the difference of the physician's experience in the implementation of various diagnostic methods. The area under the SROC curve was more closer to 1, the higher the accuracyof the diagnostic method was. Serum specific IgE wasthe gold standard for the diagnosis of allergic rhinitis at present. The area under the SROC curve was close to 1, which indicates that the diagnostic accuracy was the highest. However, the patients' peripheral blood should be collected, it was invasive detection, and may have somelimitations for halo blood patients and some children. The accuracy of specific IgE in nasaldischarge was lower than that of gold standard, but the area under SROCcurve was more than 0.9, which indicates that the accuracy of specific IgE was very high and with certain diagnostic value. It was noninvasive and easy to detect, although it can not completely replace the gold standard, it can be used as a cooperative diagnosis method.

The limitations of this study. Firstly, although there was no obvious threshold effect in this study, the threshold of each original study was not completely uniform, which may affect the accuracy of the conclusion. Secondly, low number of casesincluded in the study, and part of the study failed to provide complete data and research implementation may result in the deviation of the results and affect the accuracy of the conclusions. Thirdly, the proficiency and experience level of the physician also have an effect on the results.

To sum up, each of the three diagnostic methods has advantages and disadvantages. Our method was noninvasive and easy to operate, thus it can be used as an early screening method. If there were no abnormality, an invasive supplementary test of gold standard may be carried out. And the diagnostic accuracy can be greatly improved if the three diagnostic methods can be used in combination. Anyhow,more research was needed in the future to standardize the detection of specific IgE in nasal discharge, and define its value.



母语润色

医学翻译润色.png

英文论文

The random effect model was usedin the data analysis in this study considering that the heterogeneity of the analysis results was unavoidable and relatively high. The high heterogeneity in this study may be related to the different research designs, different basic situations of the research objects, and the difference of the physician's experiences and skills in the implementation of various diagnostic methods. It’s known that the area under the curve (AUC) of SROC is more closer to 1,the higher the accuracy of the diagnostic method is. In this sense, serumspecific IgE is now the gold standard for the diagnosis of allergic rhinitis, because in this method the AUC of SROC is the most closest to 1, which indicates that its diagnostic accuracy is the highest. In this method, however, since the patients' peripheral bloodshould be collected, it is invasive detection and therefore may have somelimitations for halo blood patients and some children patients. In the specific IgE in nasaldischarge, on the other hand, the accuracy is lower than that of the gold standard though, the AUC of SROC is more than 0.9, which indicates that theaccuracy of specific IgE is very high and with medium diagnostic value. Additionally,it is noninvasive and easy to detect and therefore can be used as a cooperativediagnosis method, although it can not completely replace the gold standard.

The limitations of this study: Firstly, although there was no obvious threshold effect in thisstudy, the threshold of each original study was not completely uniform, which may affect the accuracy of the results in this study. Secondly, only a small numberof studies and cases were included in this work, and part of the studies failed to provide complete data and research implementation, which may lead to bias of the results and affect the accuracy of the conclusions. Thirdly, the proficiency and experience level of the operators responsible for the diagnosisalso have an effect on the results.

To sum up, each of thethree diagnostic methods has advantages and disadvantages. Our method is noninvasiveand easy to operate, thus it can be used as an early screening method. If no abnormality is detected, an invasive supplementary test of gold standard may becarried out. If the three diagnostic methods can be used in combination, the diagnostic accuracy can be greatly improved. Anyhow, more researches are needed in the future to standardize the detection of specific IgE in nasal discharge, so as to define its value.



论文翻译+标准润色案例(1)
中文论文
翻译论文
母语润色
英文论文
中文论文

煤直接液化残渣DCLRDirectCoal Liquefaction Residue)是在煤 直接液化工艺中不可避免地产生的占原料煤总量30%的主要副产物,其是一种高灰、高硫、高炭和 高发热量的物质,由重质油、沥青烯、前沥青 烯和四氢呋喃不溶物 4个组分组成,其中重 质油和沥青烯类物质占30~50%[1-4]。合理有效利用DCLR不仅可 以解决环境污染问题,而且对 煤直接液化过程中的热效率及经济性产生很大的影响,因此,如何提高DCLR的二次 附加值是目前煤直接液化工艺中面临的主要问题之一。

70年代开始,人们对DCLR的热解特性、如何二次有效利用DCLR等方面 的问题展开了研究,Lytle J.M发现了 煤直接液化过程中会产生较多的DCLR,并对DCLR的特性进行了研究[5]S.KhareSuganom等研究了DCLR的性质,发现了DCLR的基本 结构及其热解特性[6-7];田中尚羲等发现DCLR中还保 留原煤的分子结构[8]

综上所述,在DCLR再利用方面,人们普遍认为DCLR可以二次开发成沥青的改性剂、中间相沥青等,但作为沥青改性剂DCLR对沥青 的改性作用仍停留在针对沥青性能的研究阶段,很少涉及到DCLR对沥青胶浆、沥青混 合料性能影响等方面的研究。众所周知,按照胶浆理论, 沥青混 合料是一种具有多级空间网络结构的分散系统, 其中沥青胶浆最为重要,起着黏 结集料并填充空隙的作用,它的组 成结构以及沥青与矿粉的相对比例(粉胶比)决定着 沥青混合料的高温稳定性和低温变形能力[9]。粉胶比过小时,自由沥青过多,易产生滑移,与粗、细集料的黏附性差;粉胶比过大时,自由沥 青完全被填料吸收,没有足 够的沥青起介质作用,整个沥 青胶浆稠度过大,易发脆、发硬,与粗、细集料的黏附性变差;只有当 粉胶比处于一个较理想的水平时,沥青胶浆与粗、细集料 的黏附性才会达到最佳[10]


翻译论文


Direct Coal Liquefaction Residue (DCLR), accounting for 30% by mass of total coals, is a main byproduct inevitably produced in direct coal to oil liquefaction(DCOL). DCLR possesses high amounts of ashes, sulfurs, carbons and calorific value and composed of heavy oil, asphaltene   preasphaltenes, and tetrahydrofuran insoluble. The heavy oil and asphaltene is about 30%~50% by mass of DCLR [14]. Efficient utilization of DCLR could reduce environmental pollution and make a huge influence on thermal and economical efficiency of DCOL processes. Therefore, how to reuse DCLR is a big problem to DCOL processes.  

Since the 1970s, how to reuse DCLR has started to be investigated. Lytle et al. found that during DCOL process a high amount of DCLR was produced and further studied the characteristics of DCLR [5]. Khare and Suganom et al. presented basic structure and pyrolysis property of DCLR [67]. Tanaka et al. proved the molecular structure of DCLR is same as that of raw coal [8].

In summary, it is generally considered that DCLR could be reused as a asphalt modifier, intermediate asphalts, etc. However, most researches were focused on the effect of adding DLCR on asphalts, however the properties of asphalt mortar and asphalt mixtures were not studied. Based on the mortar theory, it is well known that asphalt mixture is a dispersion system with multilevel space network structure. Especially, asphalt mortar plays a most important role in performance of asphalt mixture. The composition and filler/asphalt ratio of asphalt mortar determine the high and low temperature performance  of asphalt mixture [9]. When the filler/asphalt ratio is too small, the free asphalts are  too much and the binding strength between asphalts with coarse or fine aggregates are weak. While the filler/asphalt ratio is too big, free asphalts are totally absorbed by mineral fillers. Asphalt mortar becomes brittle and stiff without enough asphalt as a medium. The binding strength between asphalts with coarse or fine aggregates are also weak. Only with an appropriate filler/asphalt ratio, the optimal binding strength of asphalt mortar can be obtained [10].


沥青翻译润色.png

英文论文

Direct Coal Liquefaction Residue (DCLR) is a main byproduct inevitablyproduced in direct coal to oil liquefaction(DCOL), accounting for 30% of the totalcoal by weight. Composed of heavy oil, asphaltene preasphaltenes, andtetrahydrofuran insoluble, DCLR possesses high amounts of ashes, sulfurs,carbons, and calorific value, of which the heavy oil and asphaltene takes about30%~50% by weight[14]. Efficient utilization of DCLRcould reduce environmental pollution and make a huge influence on thethermal and economical efficiency of DCOLprocesses. Therefore, how to reuse DCLR is an importantissue to DCOL processes.

Since the 1970s, how to reuse DCLR has started tobe investigated. Lytle et al.found that during DCOL process a high amount of DCLRwas produced and they further studied the characteristics of DCLR[5].Khare andSuganom et al.presented the basic structure and pyrolysis propertyof DCLR[67]. Tanaka et al.proved the molecularstructure of raw coal in DCLR [8].

In summary, it is generallyconsidered that DCLR could be reused as an asphalt modifier, intermediateasphalts, etc. Most researches werefocused on the effect of adding DLCR on asphalts, not on the properties ofasphalt mortar and asphalt mixtures. Based on the mortar theory, itis well known that asphalt mixture is a dispersion system with a multilevelspace network structure, in which asphalt mortarplays a most important role in the performance of asphalt mixture. Thecomposition and filler/asphalt ratio of asphalt mortar determine the high/low temperature performanceof asphalt mixture[9]. When thefiller/asphalt ratiois too small, the free asphalts are toomuch and the binding between asphalts with coarse or fine aggregatesis weak. While the filler/asphalt ratio istoo big, the free asphalts are totally absorbed by mineral fillersand asphalt mortar becomesbrittle and stiff due to lack of asphalt as a medium and consequently thebinding becomes weak. Only with an appropriate filler/asphalt ratio, theoptimal binding strength of asphalt mortar can be obtained [10].


论文翻译+标准润色案例3
英文论文
翻译论文
母语润色
中文论文
英文论文

Results

DEGs

After eliminating genes of lower than the0.25 quantile mean across all samples, weobtained

15408  genes in  the  data and  detected  DEGs between NSCLC patients and normal controls based on  them. Using QCML method, a total of 122 DEGs were identified under thethresholds of FDR < 0.01 and |logFoldChange| > 2.

DPs

By  taking   intersections   among  DEGs   and IPA pathways, we gainedcommon genes and of FDR < 0.01 in total, asshown in Table 1. The DPs were Agranulocyte Adhesion and Diapedesis DR=4.330E-04),IL-17A Signaling in Fibroblasts (FDR=1.108E-03), Granulocyte Adhesion and Dia- pedesis(FDR=2.232E-03), Glutathione Redox Re- actions I (FDR=4.341E-03) andDifferential Regu- lation of Cytokine Production in Macrophages and T HelperCells by IL-17A and IL-17F (FDR=4.865 E-03).

Hub cross-talks

In the current study, a DS was computed by comparing  the gene  expression  levels of each cross-talk ormed by DPs, andthen RF classifica- tion was applied on cross-talks utilizing DS for eachsample. Additionally, the 5 Ps composed 10 cross-talks at random. When settingthe criterion to top 5 of AUC in descending order, a total of 5 ub cross-talkswere identified (Table 2). The best one was granulocyte Adhesion and Diapedesis,IL-17A Signaling in Fibroblasts with AUC=0.996, indicating that this cross-talkhad a good perfor- mance in classifying NSCLC mples and normal samples.  Interestingly, we found 4 of 5 cross- talks werecomprised of granulocyte Adhesion and Diapedesis,which suggested that this DP played significant role in the NSCLC progression. Therealso were two cross-talks with AUC >0.980 (Agranulocyte Adhesion andDiapedesis, Granu-locyte Adhesion and Diapedesis) with AUC=0.986 andAgranulocyte Adhesion and Diapedesis, Glu-tathione Redox Reactions I with AUC =0.981.


翻译论文

结果

DEGs

 在剔除 所有样本中低于0.25倍分位数的基因后,我们在数据中获得了15408个基因,并在此 基础上检测非小细胞肺癌患者与正常人之间的差异表达基因。使用QCML方法,一共有122个DEGs被鉴定出来,其错误发现率阈值(FDR)<0.01,以及Log差异倍数>2。

DPs

 通过在DEGs和IPA通路之 间进行交互分析,我们获 得了共同的基因和富集的DEGs通路。对于这些通路,我们采用Fisher’s精确检验,得到5个DPS的FDR<0.01,如表1所示。分别是:无粒细胞粘附与分化(FDR=4.330E-04),成纤维细胞中的IL-17A信号转导(FDR=1.108E-03), 粒细胞粘附与分化(FDR=2.232E-03),谷胱甘 肽氧化还原反应I (FDR=4.341E-03),IL-17A和IL-17F对巨噬细胞和辅助性T细胞产 生细胞因子的差异调控(FDR=4.865E-03)。

节点交互作用

 在本研究中,通过比较DPs形成的 每种交互作用的基因表达水平来计算DS,然后利用DS对每个样本进行RF分类。此外,5个DPs随机组成10个交互作用。当以降 序将标准设置为AUC的前5名时,共确定了5个节点交互作用 (表2)。以AUC=0.996的成纤 维细胞无粒细胞粘附和分化、IL-17A信号传导为最佳,表明这 种交互作用对非小细胞肺癌标本和正常组织有较好的分类效果。有趣的是,我们发现5条交互作用中有4条是由 粒细胞粘附和分化组成的,这表明DP在非小 细胞肺癌的发展中起到重要作用。进行了 了两次交互作用(无粒细胞粘附与分化,粒细胞粘附与分化),AUC>0.980,无粒细胞粘附与分化,AUC=0.986,谷胱甘 肽氧化还原反应,AUC=0.981。


母语润色

医学英译中润色.png

中文论文

结果

DEG

 在剔除 所有样本中低于0.25倍分位数的基因后,我们在数据中获得了15408个基因,并在此 基础上检测非小细胞肺癌患者与正常人之间的差异表达基因。使用QCML方法,一共鉴定出122个DEG,其错误发现率阈值(FDR)<0.01,Log差异倍数>2。

DP

 通过在DEG和IPA通路之 间进行交互分析,我们获 得了共同的基因和富集的DEG通路。对于这些通路,我们采用Fisher’s精确检验,得到5个DP的FDR<0.01,如表1所示。分别是:无粒细胞粘附与分化(FDR=4.330E-04)、成纤维细胞中的IL-17A信号转导(FDR=1.108E-03)、粒细胞粘附与分化(FDR=2.232E-03)、谷胱甘 肽氧化还原反应I (FDR=4.341E-03)、IL-17A和IL-17F对巨噬细胞和辅助性T细胞产 生细胞因子的差异调控(FDR=4.865E-03)。

节点交互作用

 在本研究中,通过比较DP形成的 每种交互作用的基因表达水平来计算DS,然后利用DS对每个样本进行RF分类。此外,5个DP随机组成10个交互作用。当以降 序将标准设置为AUC的前5名时,共确定了5个节点交互作用 (表2)。以AUC=0.996的成纤 维细胞无粒细胞粘附和分化、IL-17A信号传导为最佳,表明这 种交互作用对非小细胞肺癌标本和正常组织有较好的分类效果。有趣的是,我们发现5条交互作用中有4条是由 粒细胞粘附和分化组成的,这表明DP在非小 细胞肺癌的发展中起到重要作用。进行了两次交互作用,结果AUC均是大于0.980,其中无 粒细胞粘附与分化、粒细胞粘附与分化,其AUC=0.986,无粒细胞粘附与分化,谷胱甘 肽氧化还原反应,其AUC=0.981。


论文翻译+标准润色案例4
中文论文
翻译论文
母语润色
英文论文
中文论文

采集三 峡库区忠县黄花城河段黏性泥沙进行紊动剪切作用下的絮凝试验研究。试验装 置主要包括沉降柱、絮体分 离室和絮体图像采集系统,试验中 采用振动格栅产生近似均匀紊流场,并通过ADV测量流 速来校核流体剪切率和格栅振动频率的关系。试验结果表明:(1)该黏性 泥沙絮凝效果明显,絮体最大粒径Df.95为73~126μm、平均粒径Df.50为18~33μm,絮体粒 径分布受紊动剪切率和泥沙浓度的影响较大;(2)随着紊 动剪切率的增大(从3.84s-1至30.07s-1),Df.95呈先增 大后减小的趋势;当剪切率为19.94s-1时,Df.95达到最大值,大絮体(粒径大于96μm)的数量 百分数也达到最大值;(3)相同紊 动剪切率条件下,不同浓度(0.3~1.0 g/L)泥沙絮 凝后的絮体粒径分布,基本符合“泥沙浓度越高,Df.95越大”的趋势。

翻译论文

Flocculation experiments on the effectof turbulent shear was conducted on the cohesive sediment collected inHuanghuacheng section of Zhongxian County in Three Gorges Reservoir.Experimental instruments included cylindrical settling column, flocculationseparation chamber, and image collecting system. An approximately uniformturbulent flow field was generated by oscillating gridsin cylindrical settlingcolumn, and the relation between shear rate and the frequency of oscillatinggrids was calibrated by the measured velocity using Acoustic DopplerVelocimetry. The results show: (1) the apparent flocculation of cohesivesediment in Three Gorges Reservoir was observed, with the largest floc sizeranging 73~126μm and floc mean size ranging 18~33μm, and floc size distributionwas strongly affected by the turbulent shear rate and the concentration ofcohesive sediment; (2) the largest floc size increases then decreases with theincrease of turbulent shear rate (from 3.84s-1 to 30.07s-1),and the largest floc size and the percentage of large floc (larger than 96μm)reach maximum at shear rate 19.94s-1; (3) floc size distributionvaries significantly for sediment with different concentrations (0.3~1.0 g/L)at the same shear rate, with a basic tendency that higher concentration leadsto larger floc size.


母语润色

论文翻译公司

英文论文

Flocculation experiments on the effect of the turbulent shear was conducted on the cohesivesediment collected in Huanghuacheng section of Zhongxian County along Three Gorges Reservoir. The experimental instruments included cylindrical settlingcolumns, flocculation separation chambers, and image collecting systems. Anapproximate turbulence flow was generated using oscillating grids in a cylindricalsettling column, and the relation between the shear rate and the frequency of thegrids was calibrated using an ADV (Acoustic Doppler Velocimetry). The results showed that: (1) The cohesive sediment was apparently flocculated, with the largest floc size Df.95 ranging 73~126μm and the mean size Df.50ranging18~33μm, which were both strongly affected by the turbulent shear rate and the sediment concentration ; (2) Df.95 demonstrated a trend of increase followed by decrease with the turbulent shear rate (from3.84s-1 to 30.07s-1), with its peak occurring at the shearrate 19.94s-1, where the percentage of large floc (larger than 96μmin diameter) also reached the vertex ; (3) The distribution of Df.95 corresponding todifferent concentrations (0.3~1.0 g/L) at the same shear rate basically followed a tendency of  Df.95 increases with the concentration of the sediment.




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标准论文翻译+母语润色案例
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